Augustus was the first emperor of Rome. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana, or Roman peace. .
Beyond the frontiers, he secured the empire with client states, and made peace with Parthia through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, and created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome. Augustus was already an adult when Julius Caesar adopted him. Caesar had no male heir and had been impressed when the then-named Octavius made a perilous journey through hostile territory to join Caesar’s army. Octavius was a plebeian, the lower class of Rome, until his adoption by Caesar made him a patrician. Augustus enlarged the empire dramatically, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, and Raetia, expanded possessions in Africa, and completed the conquest of Hispania. Augustus lived a long life and served Rome well. When he died in AD 14 at the age of 77, he was declared a Roman god, and every emperor after him adopted the title of Caesar.